Challenges Facing Education Sector in India – Detailed Analysis

Challenges Facing Education Sector
Challenges Facing Education Sector in India

The challenges facing education sector in India today are:

1) Access and Participation(Challenges facing education sector in India)

a. Research highlights the importance of early childhood education. Participation in pre-school education remains low in the country being one of the major challenges facing education sector in India.

b. Expanding access to early childhood education and provide equal opportunity to all children to prepare them for formal education is a priority task

c. While nationally the % of out of school children aged 6-13 years has declined since 2000, still the absolute number remains high

d. Currently there is a situation of relatively lower enrolment rates in upper primary and secondary education. Ensuring mobility of students from elementary to primary to secondary to tertiary education is a key challenge. Currently Gross Enrolment Ratio in higher education is 23.6%. The target is to increase it to 25.2% in 2017-18 and to 30% in 2020-21

e. Relatively slower progress in reducing the number of illiterates is also a huge challenge. India currently has the highest number of non literates in the world

2) Quality Issues(Challenges facing education sector in India)

a. Poor quality of education leading to unsatisfactory learning outcomes is a huge challenge. At the pre school level the following challenges are there

i. Inappropriate curriculum

ii. Lack of trained educators

iii. Ineffective pedagogy

Resultantly students coming out of pre schools do not have school readiness in terms of cognitive and language domains

b. Biggest challenge remains the unsatisfactory level of student learning. ASER reports, PISA reports all point towards the same. Finding of National Achievement Surveys covering Grades 3, 5, 8 and 10 suggest that learning levels of a significant proportion of students do not measure up to expected learning levels which has a cascading effect on the next stage Perceived failure of government schools has triggered entry of a large number of private schools, many of whom also fall prey to the same vices

c. Quality at higher education level –

Issues are

i. Very few universities and colleges accredited by NAAC are in A grade

ii. Mushrooming of private players of indifferent quality

iii. Shortage of well qualified faculty

iv. Vacancy in faculty positions

v. Poor infrastructure in both private as well as public institutions

vi. Slow renewal of curriculum to align it more closely with skills demanded in a diversified economy

vii. Inadequate funding for research and development

3) Equity(Challenges facing education sector in India)

a. Whereas substantial improvement is seen in enhancing enrolment rate in pre-school, still, children from disadvantaged population still lack access to pre school education

b. % of Out of school children (OOSC) has declined since 2000, but the absolute number is still high. Moreover, OOSC still very high among SC, ST and Muslims

c. Children from certain sections like children with disabilities, children in remote location, children belonging to nomadic families, migrant children and other vulnerable disadvantaged group are yet to take full benefit of educational opportunities

4) Skills and employability(Challenges facing education sector in India)

a. India is a young nation with 54% of population below 25 years of age. Thus skilling is necessary to take care of livelihood needs

b. However institutional arrangements to support technical and vocational educational programme quite inadequate

5) Curriculum and Assessment(Challenges facing education sector in India)

a. Growing disconnect between existing school and higher education curricula

b. Curriculum thrust needed for promoting acquisition of relevant skills by students is missing

c. Assessment criteria in schools focus primarily on rote learning and ability of students to reproduce content knowledge

6) ICT potential not fully tapped by educational institutes in the country(Challenges facing education sector in India)

7) Teacher development and management(Challenges facing education sector in India)

a. Not equipping teachers with competencies required to cope up with new profile and roles expected of teachers

b. Mismatch between institutional capacity and required teacher supply resulting in shortage of teachers. Problem more acute in Eastern part of the country

c. Research, innovation and experimentation in teacher education is very limited

8) Governance and Management(Challenges facing education sector in India)

a. It has assumed complexity especially at tertiary level due to

i. Advent of multiplicity of providers

ii. Multiplicity of programmes

iii. Multiplicity in modes of financing

9) Research and Development is not up to the mark(Challenges facing education sector in India)

10) Budgetary Constraints(Challenges facing education sector in India)

Target of 6% of GDP envisaged in National Education Policy 1986 yet to be met

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About Sneha Sharma 26 Articles
Hello friends I am a fun loving girl who is fond of travelling and reading books. I am a die hard movie fan and believe in social work as it is us who are going to change this society.